Le vitiligo, leucodermie ou achromie est une maladie de l'épiderme qui se caractérise par des taches blanches (dépigmentation) qui apparaissent et s'étendent sur la peau.
Modern humans (Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens sapiens) are the last of the hominids, a branch of great apes characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion; manual dexterity and increased tool use; and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies. Early hominids, such as the australopithecines who had more apelike brains and skulls, are less often thought of or referred to as "human" than hominids of the genus Homo. Of these, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo heidelbergensis are considered to be the most likely immediate line of ancestry of modern humans. Homo sapiens reached anatomical modernity about 200,000 years ago and began to exhibit behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago. Humans have become the most cosmopolitan species, with established populations on all but the smallest, driest, and coldest lands; and permanently manned bases in Antarctica, on offshore platforms, and orbiting the earth.