Silicon Valley (« Vallée du silicium ») désigne le pôle des industries de pointe situé dans la partie sud de la Région de la baie de San Francisco en Californie, sur la côte ouest des États-Unis. Même si cette région n'est pas une vallée à proprement parler, l'expression désigne souvent par métonymie l'industrie des technologies de pointe en général. La ville de San José est la plus grande ville de Silicon Valley. En anglais, l'expression « Silicon Valley » n'est généralement pas précédée d'un article. On parle d'ailleurs plus simplement de "The Valley". La Silicon Valley a inspiré bon nombre de technopoles en Europe.
Google is an American multinational corporation specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, and software. Most of its profits are derived from AdWords.
Google was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares but control 56 of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering followed on August 19, 2004. Its mission statement from the outset was "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful", and its unofficial slogan was "Don't be evil". In 2006 Google moved to headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex.
Rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers online productivity software including email (Gmail), an office suite (Google Drive), and social networking (Google+). Desktop products include applications for web browsing, organizing and editing photos, and instant messaging. The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system and the browser-only Chrome OS for a netbook known as a Chromebook. Google has moved increasingly into communications hardware: it partners with major electronics manufacturers in production of its high-end Nexus devices and acquired Motorola Mobility in May 2012. In 2012, a fiber-optic infrastructure was installed in Kansas City to facilitate a Google Fiber broadband service.