L'Océanie est une vaste région regroupant des territoires situés dans l'océan Pacifique. Elle est l'un des six continents (divisions traditionnelles des terres émergées de la planète).
Elle inclut l'Australie, la Nouvelle-Zélande et la Nouvelle-Guinée et d'autres îles et archipels. L'Australie comprend l'essentiel de sa surface, et, alors que le reste de l'Océanie ne peut être traitée que comme un ensemble insulaire, la terre principale d'Australie peut quant à elle être considérée comme la plus petite des masses continentales.
Papua New Guinea (PNG; Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini), officially named the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the western portion of the island is a part of the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua) and numerous offshore islands. It is located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, in a region described since the early 19th century as Melanesia. The capital is Port Moresby.
Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. According to recent data, 848 different languages are listed for the country, of which 12 have no known living speakers. There may be at least as many traditional societies, out of a population of about 6.3 million. It is also one of the most rural, as only 18% of its people live in urban centres. The country is one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically, and many undiscovered species of plants and animals are thought to exist in the interior of Papua New Guinea.
Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector has led to PNG becoming the sixth fastest-growing economy in the world as of 2011. Despite this, many people live in extreme poverty, with about one-third of the population living on less than US$1.25 per day. The majority of the population still live in traditional societies and practice subsistence-based agriculture. These societies and clans have some explicit acknowledgement within the nation's constitutional framework. The PNG Constitution expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society", and for active steps to be taken in their preservation.