La liste des monarques de France réunit les rois et empereurs qui ont régné sur les différentes incarnations de la France monarchique : royaumes francs, royaume de France, Premier Empire, Restauration, monarchie de Juillet et Second Empire. Le dernier monarque ayant régné en France est l'empereur Napoléon III, déchu le 4 septembre 1870. Jusqu'alors, la France avait toujours été une monarchie, hormis durant deux périodes : la Première République, du 22 septembre 1792 au 18 mai 1804, et la Deuxième République, du 24 février 1848 au 2 décembre 1852 (voir :Liste des présidents de la République française).
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi-Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is one of the longest in French and European history.
Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661 after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. An adherent of the theory of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital. He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis's minority. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.
During Louis's reign France was the leading European power and fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession. There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Louis encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political, military and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Colbert, the Grand Condé, Turenne and Vauban, as well as Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Marais, Le Brun, Rigaud, Bossuet, Le Vau, Mansart, Charles and Claude Perrault, and Le Nôtre.