Israël, en forme longue l’État d’Israël, respectivement en hébreu יִשְׂרָאֵל (Yisrā'el) et מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Medīnat Yisra'el), en arabe إِسْرَائِيلُ (Isrā'īl) et دولة إسرائيل (Dawlat Isrā'īl), est un État situé sur la côte orientale de la mer Méditerranée au Proche-Orient. Son indépendance a été proclamée le 14 mai 1948, après le vote du plan de partage de la Palestine mandataire le 29 novembre 1947 par l’ONU qui mit fin au mandat britannique.
The Western Wall, Wailing Wall or Kotel (Hebrew: הַכֹּתֶל הַמַּעֲרָבִי (help·info), translit.: HaKotel HaMa'aravi; Ashkenazic pronunciation: Kosel, Koisel, Keisel or Kausel; Arabic: حائط البراق, translit.: Ḥā'iṭ Al-Burāq, translat.: The Buraq Wall) is located in the Old City of Jerusalem at the foot of the western side of the Temple Mount. It is a remnant of the ancient wall that surrounded the Jewish Temple's courtyard, and is arguably the most sacred site recognized by the Jewish faith outside of the Temple Mount itself. Just over half the wall, including its 17 courses located below street level, dates from the end of the Second Temple period, commonly believed to have been constructed around 19 BCE by Herod the Great, but recent excavations indicate that the works were not finished during Herod's lifetime. The remaining layers were added from the 7th century onwards. The Western Wall refers not only to the exposed section facing a large plaza in the Jewish Quarter, but also to the sections concealed behind structures running along the whole length of the Temple Mount, such as the Little Western Wall – a 25 ft (8 m) section in the Muslim Quarter.