La campagne d’Égypte est l'expédition militaire en Égypte menée par le général Bonaparte et ses successeurs de 1798 à 1801, afin de s'emparer de l'Égypte et de l'Orient, dans le cadre de la lutte contre la Grande-Bretagne, l'une des puissances à maintenir les hostilités contre la France révolutionnaire.
Elle se double d'une expédition scientifique, de nombreux historiens, botanistes, dessinateurs accompagnant l'armée afin de redécouvrir les richesses de l'Égypte. Elle est donc parfois aussi appelée expédition d’Égypte, lorsque son côté scientifique, moins martial, est considéré.
Le 19 mai 1798 (30 floréal an VI) le corps expéditionnaire français quitte Toulon, mais des navires les accompagnent de Marseille, Gênes, Ajaccio, Civitavecchia. Au total plus de 400 navires prennent part à cette flotte, ainsi que 40 000 hommes et 10 000 marins. La flotte s'empare tout d'abord de Malte le 11 juin, puis débarque à Alexandrie le 1er juillet.
Graffiti is writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other surface, often in a public place. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and it has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, and the Roman Empire.
In modern times, paint (particularly spray paint) and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's consent is considered defacement and vandalism, which is a punishable crime.
Graffiti may also express underlying social and political messages and a whole genre of artistic expression is based upon spray paint graffiti styles. Within hip hop culture, graffiti has evolved alongside hip hop music, b-boying, and other elements. Unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities.
Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, and writers who wish to display and appreciate work in public locations. There are many different types and styles of graffiti and it is a rapidly developing art form whose value is highly contested and reviled by many authorities while also subject to protection, sometimes within the same jurisdiction.
Both "graffiti" and its occasional singular form "graffito" are from the Italian word graffiato ("scratched"). "Graffiti" is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface. A related term is "sgraffito", which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was primarily used by potters who would glaze their wares and then scratch a design into it. In ancient times graffiti were carved on walls with a sharp object, although sometimes chalk or coal were used. The word originates from Greek γράφειν — graphein — meaning "to write."